According to its origin, the kingdom of Ayutthaya arose from the ancient neighboring kingdoms of Labomin and Suvarnabhumi, with Uthong as the first king. Ayutthaya under the mandala system was a region that was given autonomy and tributary states due to their allegiance to the King of Ayutthaya. Before the end of the 15th century, Ayutthaya invaded the Khmer Empire three times and overthrew its capital, Angkor Wat. Due to Sukhothai's constant interference, it was effectively made a vassal state of Ayutthaya, which eventually merged into a kingdom. Borommatrailokkanat brought about bureaucratic reforms that lasted into the 20th century, created a social hierarchy called sakdina, and conscripted ordinary men into the military for six months a year as dead chicken workers. to conquer the Malacca Sultanate supported by the Chinese Ming Dynasty.-11; European contact and trade began in the early 16th century, and in 1511 Portugal became an ally with the ambassador of Duke Afonso de Albuquerque and provided some soldiers to King Ramathibodi. The Portuguese in the 17th century, France. The Dutch and English followed. Chiang Mai and the Mon people competed to conquer Ayutthaya in Burma. A series of wars with the Taung Ngu dynasty, which began in 1540 during the reigns of Tabin Shweti and Bu Rin Naung, finally ended with the capture of the capital in 1570. Independence in 1584.: 11 Ayutthaya then sought to develop relations with European powers throughout the ages. The kingdom flourished especially during the Narayan reign (1656-1688) when some European travelers brought Ayutthaya along with Asian powers China and India. eventually leading to the Siamese Revolution of 1688.: 185–6 However. French missionaries were still preaching Christianity, and overall relations remained stable. After the bloody revolution, Ayutthaya became a place of art, Ayutthaya entered the so-called Siamese "Golden Age", a relatively peaceful period in the second quarter of the 18th century, when literature and learning flourished. Beginning around 1715, foreign wars were rare, except for conflicts with Nguyen lords for control of Cambodia. The final fifty years of the kingdom saw succession crises and a series of purges of court officials and generals. In 1765, a 40,000-strong Burmese army invaded from the north and west. The walls of the city collapsed and the city was burned in April 1767.: 218.